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HIVE DDL Commands

Create/Drop/Alter/Use Database

Create Database

CREATE (DATABASE|SCHEMA) [IF NOT EXISTS] database_name
  [COMMENT database_comment]
  [LOCATION hdfs_path]
  [WITH DBPROPERTIES (property_name=property_value, ...)];

The uses of SCHEMA and DATABASE are interchangeable – they mean the same thing. CREATE DATABASE was added in Hive 0.6 (HIVE-675).  The WITH DBPROPERTIES clause was added in Hive 0.7 (HIVE-1836).

Drop Database

DROP (DATABASE|SCHEMA) [IF EXISTS] database_name [RESTRICT|CASCADE];

The uses of SCHEMA and DATABASE are interchangeable – they mean the same thing. DROP DATABASE was added in Hive 0.6 (HIVE-675). The default behavior is RESTRICT, where DROP DATABASE will fail if the database is not empty. To drop the tables in the database as well, use DROP DATABASE … CASCADE. Support for RESTRICT and CASCADE was added in Hive 0.8 (HIVE-2090).

Alter Database

ALTER (DATABASE|SCHEMA) database_name SET DBPROPERTIES (property_name=property_value, ...);   -- (Note: SCHEMA added in Hive 0.14.0)
ALTER (DATABASE|SCHEMA) database_name SET OWNER [USER|ROLE] user_or_role;   -- (Note: Hive 0.13.0 and later; SCHEMA added in Hive 0.14.0)

The uses of SCHEMA and DATABASE are interchangeable – they mean the same thing. ALTER SCHEMA was added in Hive 0.14 (HIVE-6601).

No other metadata about a database can be changed.

Use Database

USE database_name;
USE DEFAULT;

USE sets the current database for all subsequent HiveQL statements. To revert to the default database, use the keyword “default” instead of a database name. To check which database is currently being used: SELECT current_database()

Create Table

CREATE [TEMPORARY] [EXTERNAL] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] [db_name.]table_name    -- (Note: TEMPORARY available in Hive 0.14.0 and later)
  [(col_name data_type [COMMENT col_comment], ...)]
  [COMMENT table_comment]
  [PARTITIONED BY (col_name data_type [COMMENT col_comment], ...)]
  [CLUSTERED BY (col_name, col_name, ...) [SORTED BY (col_name [ASC|DESC], ...)] INTO num_buckets BUCKETS]
  [SKEWED BY (col_name, col_name, ...)                  -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.10.0 and later)]
     ON ((col_value, col_value, ...), (col_value, col_value, ...), ...)
     [STORED AS DIRECTORIES]
  [
   [ROW FORMAT row_format] 
   [STORED AS file_format]
     | STORED BY 'storage.handler.class.name' [WITH SERDEPROPERTIES (...)]  -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.6.0 and later)
  ]
  [LOCATION hdfs_path]
  [TBLPROPERTIES (property_name=property_value, ...)]   -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.6.0 and later)
  [AS select_statement];   -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.5.0 and later; not supported for external tables)
CREATE [TEMPORARY] [EXTERNAL] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] [db_name.]table_name
  LIKE existing_table_or_view_name
  [LOCATION hdfs_path];
data_type
  : primitive_type
  | array_type
  | map_type
  | struct_type
  | union_type  -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.7.0 and later)
primitive_type
  : TINYINT
  | SMALLINT
  | INT
  | BIGINT
  | BOOLEAN
  | FLOAT
  | DOUBLE
  | DOUBLE PRECISION -- (Note: Available in Hive 2.2.0 and later)
  | STRING
  | BINARY      -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.8.0 and later)
  | TIMESTAMP   -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.8.0 and later)
  | DECIMAL     -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.11.0 and later)
  | DECIMAL(precision, scale)  -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.13.0 and later)
  | DATE        -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.12.0 and later)
  | VARCHAR     -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.12.0 and later)
  | CHAR        -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.13.0 and later)
array_type
  : ARRAY < data_type >
map_type
  : MAP < primitive_type, data_type >
struct_type
  : STRUCT < col_name : data_type [COMMENT col_comment], ...>
union_type
   : UNIONTYPE < data_type, data_type, ... >  -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.7.0 and later)
row_format
  : DELIMITED [FIELDS TERMINATED BY char [ESCAPED BY char]] [COLLECTION ITEMS TERMINATED BY char]
        [MAP KEYS TERMINATED BY char] [LINES TERMINATED BY char]
        [NULL DEFINED AS char]   -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.13 and later)
  | SERDE serde_name [WITH SERDEPROPERTIES (property_name=property_value, property_name=property_value, ...)]
file_format:
  : SEQUENCEFILE
  | TEXTFILE    -- (Default, depending on hive.default.fileformat configuration)
  | RCFILE      -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.6.0 and later)
  | ORC         -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.11.0 and later)
  | PARQUET     -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.13.0 and later)
  | AVRO        -- (Note: Available in Hive 0.14.0 and later)
  | INPUTFORMAT input_format_classname OUTPUTFORMAT output_format_classname

CREATE TABLE creates a table with the given name. An error is thrown if a table or view with the same name already exists. You can use IF NOT EXISTS to skip the error.

  • Table names and column names are case insensitive but SerDe and property names are case sensitive.
    • In Hive 0.12 and earlier, only alphanumeric and underscore characters are allowed in table and column names.
    • In Hive 0.13 and later, column names can contain any Unicode character (see HIVE-6013). Any column name that is specified within backticks (`) is treated literally. Within a backtick string, use double backticks (``) to represent a backtick character. Backtick quotation also enables the use of reserved keywords for table and column identifiers.
    • To revert to pre-0.13.0 behavior and restrict column names to alphanumeric and underscore characters, set the configuration property hive.support.quoted.identifiers to none. In this configuration, backticked names are interpreted as regular expressions. For details, see Supporting Quoted Identifiers in Column Names.
  • Table and column comments are string literals (single-quoted).
  • A table created without the EXTERNAL clause is called a managed table because Hive manages its data. To find out if a table is managed or external, look for tableType in the output of DESCRIBE EXTENDED table_name.
  • The TBLPROPERTIES clause allows you to tag the table definition with your own metadata key/value pairs. Some predefined table properties also exist, such as last_modified_user and last_modified_time which are automatically added and managed by Hive. Other predefined table properties include:
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“comment”=”table_comment“)
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“hbase.table.name”=”table_name“) – see HBase Integration.
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“immutable”=”true”) or (“immutable”=”false”) in release 0.13.0+ (HIVE-6406) – see Inserting Data into Hive Tables from Queries.
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“orc.compress”=”ZLIB”) or (“orc.compress”=”SNAPPY”) or (“orc.compress”=”NONE”) and other ORC properties – see ORC Files.
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“transactional”=”true”) or (“transactional”=”false”) in release 0.14.0+, the default is “false” – see Hive Transactions.
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“NO_AUTO_COMPACTION”=”true”) or (“NO_AUTO_COMPACTION”=”false”), the default is “false” – see Hive Transactions.
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“compactor.mapreduce.map.memory.mb”=”mapper_memory”) – see Hive Transactions.
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“compactorthreshold.hive.compactor.delta.num.threshold”=”threshold_num“) – see Hive Transactions.
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“compactorthreshold.hive.compactor.delta.pct.threshold”=”threshold_pct“) – see Hive Transactions.
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“auto.purge”=”true”) or (“auto.purge”=”false”) in release 1.2.0+ (HIVE-9118) – see Drop Table and Drop Partitions.
    • TBLPROPERTIES (“EXTERNAL”=”TRUE”) in release 0.6.0+ (HIVE-1329) – Change a managed table to an external table and vice versa for “FALSE”.
  • To specify a database for the table, either issue the USE database_name statement prior to the CREATE TABLE statement (in Hive 0.6 and later) or qualify the table name with a database name (“database_name.table.name” in Hive 0.7 and later).
    The keyword “default” can be used for the default database.

See Alter Table below for more information about table comments, table properties, and SerDe properties.

See Type System and Hive Data Types for details about the primitive and complex data types.

Managed and External Tables

By default Hive creates managed tables, where files, metadata and statistics are managed by internal Hive processes. A managed table is stored under the hive.metastore.warehouse.dir path property, by default in a folder path similar to /apps/hive/warehouse/databasename.db/tablename/. The default location can be overridden by the location property during table creation. If a managed table or partition is dropped, the data and metadata associated with that table or partition are deleted. If the PURGE option is not specified, the data is moved to a trash folder for a defined duration.

Use managed tables when Hive should manage the lifecycle of the table, or when generating temporary tables.

An external table describes the metadata / schema on external files. External table files can be accessed and managed by processes outside of Hive. External tables can access data stored in sources such as Azure Storage Volumes (ASV) or remote HDFS locations. If the structure or partitioning of an external table is changed, an MSCK REPAIR TABLE table_name statement can be used to refresh metadata information.

Use external tables when files are already present or in remote locations, and the files should remain even if the table is dropped.

Managed or external tables can be identified using the DESCRIBE FORMATTED table_name command, which will display either MANAGED_TABLE or EXTERNAL_TABLE depending on table type.

Statistics can be managed on internal and external tables and partitions for query optimization.

Storage Formats

Hive supports built-in and custom-developed file formats. See CompressedStorage for details on compressed table storage.
The following are some of the formats built-in to Hive:

Storage Format
Description
STORED AS TEXTFILE Stored as plain text files. TEXTFILE is the default file format, unless the configuration parameter hive.default.fileformat has a different setting.Use the DELIMITED clause to read delimited files.

Enable escaping for the delimiter characters by using the ‘ESCAPED BY’ clause (such as ESCAPED BY ‘\’)
Escaping is needed if you want to work with data that can contain these delimiter characters.

A custom NULL format can also be specified using the ‘NULL DEFINED AS’ clause (default is ‘\N’).

STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE Stored as compressed Sequence File.
STORED AS ORC Stored as ORC file format. Supports ACID Transactions & Cost-based Optimizer (CBO). Stores column-level metadata.
STORED AS PARQUET Stored as Parquet format for the Parquet columnar storage format in Hive 0.13.0 and later;
Use ROW FORMAT SERDE … STORED AS INPUTFORMAT … OUTPUTFORMAT syntax … in Hive 0.10, 0.11, or 0.12.
STORED AS AVRO Stored as Avro format in Hive 0.14.0 and later (see Avro SerDe).
STORED AS RCFILE Stored as Record Columnar File format.
STORED BY Stored by a non-native table format. To create or link to a non-native table, for example a table backed by HBase or Druid or Accumulo.
See StorageHandlers for more information on this option.
INPUTFORMAT and OUTPUTFORMAT in the file_format to specify the name of a corresponding InputFormat and OutputFormat class as a string literal.

For example, ‘org.apache.hadoop.hive.contrib.fileformat.base64.Base64TextInputFormat’.

For LZO compression, the values to use are
‘INPUTFORMAT “com.hadoop.mapred.DeprecatedLzoTextInputFormat”
OUTPUTFORMAT “org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.io.HiveIgnoreKeyTextOutputFormat”‘

(see LZO Compression).

Row Formats & SerDe

You can create tables with a custom SerDe or using a native SerDe. A native SerDe is used if ROW FORMAT is not specified or ROW FORMAT DELIMITED is specified.
Use the SERDE clause to create a table with a custom SerDe. For more information on SerDes see:

You must specify a list of columns for tables that use a native SerDe. Refer to the Types part of the User Guide for the allowable column types.
A list of columns for tables that use a custom SerDe may be specified but Hive will query the SerDe to determine the actual list of columns for this table.

For general information about SerDes, see Hive SerDe in the Developer Guide. Also see SerDe for details about input and output processing.

To change a table’s SerDe or SERDEPROPERTIES, use the ALTER TABLE statement as described below in Add SerDe Properties.

Row Format

Description

RegEx

ROW FORMAT SERDE
‘org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.RegexSerDe’
WITH SERDEPROPERTIES
(
“input.regex” = “<regex>”
)
STORED AS TEXTFILE;

Stored as plain text file, translated by Regular Expression.

The following example defines a table in the default Apache Weblog format.

 

CREATE TABLE apachelog (
  host STRING,
  identity STRING,
  user STRING,
  time STRING,
  request STRING,
  status STRING,
  size STRING,
  referer STRING,
  agent STRING)
ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.RegexSerDe'
WITH SERDEPROPERTIES (
  "input.regex" "([^]*) ([^]*) ([^]*) (-|\\[^\\]*\\]) ([^ \"]*|\"[^\"]*\") (-|[0-9]*) (-|[0-9]*)(?: ([^ \"]*|\".*\") ([^ \"]*|\".*\"))?"
)
STORED AS TEXTFILE;

More about RegexSerDe can be found here in HIVE-662 and HIVE-1719.

JSON

ROW FORMAT SERDE
‘org.apache.hive.hcatalog.data.JsonSerDe’
STORED AS TEXTFILE

Stored as plain text file in JSON format.
The JsonSerDe for JSON files is available in Hive 0.12 and later.

In some distributions, a reference to hive-hcatalog-core.jar is required.
ADD JAR /usr/lib/hive-hcatalog/lib/hive-hcatalog-core.jar;

CREATE TABLE my_table(a string, b bigint, ...)

ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hive.hcatalog.data.JsonSerDe'
STORED AS TEXTFILE;
The JsonSerDe was moved to Hive from HCatalog and before it was in hive-contrib project. It was added to the Hive distribution by HIVE-4895.
An Amazon SerDe is available at s3://elasticmapreduce/samples/hive-ads/libs/jsonserde.jar for releases prior to 0.12.0.

The JsonSerDe for JSON files is available in Hive 0.12 and later.

CSV/TSV

ROW FORMAT SERDE
‘org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.OpenCSVSerde’
STORED AS TEXTFILE

Stored as plain text file in CSV / TSV format.
The CSVSerde is available in Hive 0.14 and greater.
The following example creates a TSV (Tab-separated) file.

CREATE TABLE my_table(a string, b string, ...)
ROW FORMAT SERDE 
'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.OpenCSVSerde'

WITH SERDEPROPERTIES (
   "separatorChar" "\t",
   "quoteChar"     "'",
   "escapeChar"    "\\"
)  
STORED AS TEXTFILE;
Default properties for SerDe is Comma-Separated (CSV) file
DEFAULT_ESCAPE_CHARACTER \
DEFAULT_QUOTE_CHARACTER  "
DEFAULT_SEPARATOR        ,

This SerDe works for most CSV data, but does not handle embedded newlines. To use the SerDe, specify the fully qualified class name org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.OpenCSVSerde.

Documentation is based on original documentation at https://github.com/ogrodnek/csv-serde.

Limitations

This SerDe treats all columns to be of type String. Even if you create a table with non-string column types using this SerDe, the DESCRIBE TABLE output would show string column type.
The type information is retrieved from the SerDe.

To convert columns to the desired type in a table, you can create a view over the table that does the CAST to the desired type.

The CSV SerDe is based on https://github.com/ogrodnek/csv-serde, and was added to the Hive distribution in HIVE-7777.

The CSVSerde has been built and tested against Hive 0.14 and later, and uses Open-CSV 2.3 which is bundled with the Hive distribution.

For general information about SerDes, see Hive SerDe in the Developer Guide. Also see SerDe for details about input and output processing.

Partitioned Tables

Partitioned tables can be created using the PARTITIONED BY clause. A table can have one or more partition columns and a separate data directory is created for each distinct value combination in the partition columns. Further, tables or partitions can be bucketed using CLUSTERED BY columns, and data can be sorted within that bucket via SORT BY columns. This can improve performance on certain kinds of queries.

If, when creating a partitioned table, you get this error: “FAILED: Error in semantic analysis: Column repeated in partitioning columns,” it means you are trying to include the partitioned column in the data of the table itself. You probably really do have the column defined. However, the partition you create makes a pseudocolumn on which you can query, so you must rename your table column to something else (that users should not query on!).

For example, suppose your original unpartitioned table had three columns: id, date, and name.

Example:
id     int,
date   date,
name   varchar

Now you want to partition on date. Your Hive definition could use “dtDontQuery” as a column name so that “date” can be used for partitioning (and querying).

Example:
create table table_name (
  id                int,
  dtDontQuery       string,
  name              string
)
partitioned by (date string)

Now your users will still query on “where date = '...'” but the second column dtDontQuery will hold the original values.

Here’s an example statement to create a partitioned table:

Example:
CREATE TABLE page_view(viewTime INT, userid BIGINT,
     page_url STRING, referrer_url STRING,
     ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User')
 COMMENT 'This is the page view table'
 PARTITIONED BY(dt STRING, country STRING)
 STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE;

The statement above creates the page_view table with viewTime, userid, page_url, referrer_url, and ip columns (including comments). The table is also partitioned and data is stored in sequence files. The data format in the files is assumed to be field-delimited by ctrl-A and row-delimited by newline.

Example:
CREATE TABLE page_view(viewTime INT, userid BIGINT,
     page_url STRING, referrer_url STRING,
     ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User')
 COMMENT 'This is the page view table'
 PARTITIONED BY(dt STRING, country STRING)
 ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
   FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\001'
STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE;

The above statement lets you create the same table as the previous table.

In the previous examples the data is stored in <hive.metastore.warehouse.dir>/page_view. Specify a value for the key hive.metastore.warehouse.dir in the Hive config file hive-site.xml.

External Tables

The EXTERNAL keyword lets you create a table and provide a LOCATION so that Hive does not use a default location for this table. This comes in handy if you already have data generated. When dropping an EXTERNAL table, data in the table is NOT deleted from the file system.

An EXTERNAL table points to any HDFS location for its storage, rather than being stored in a folder specified by the configuration property hive.metastore.warehouse.dir.

Example:
CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE page_view(viewTime INT, userid BIGINT,
     page_url STRING, referrer_url STRING,
     ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User',
     country STRING COMMENT 'country of origination')
 COMMENT 'This is the staging page view table'
 ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\054'
 STORED AS TEXTFILE
 LOCATION '<hdfs_location>';

You can use the above statement to create a page_view table which points to any HDFS location for its storage. But you still have to make sure that the data is delimited as specified in the CREATE statement above.

For another example of creating an external table, see Loading Data in the Tutorial.

Create Table As Select (CTAS)

Tables can also be created and populated by the results of a query in one create-table-as-select (CTAS) statement. The table created by CTAS is atomic, meaning that the table is not seen by other users until all the query results are populated. So other users will either see the table with the complete results of the query or will not see the table at all.

There are two parts in CTAS, the SELECT part can be any SELECT statement supported by HiveQL. The CREATE part of the CTAS takes the resulting schema from the SELECT part and creates the target table with other table properties such as the SerDe and storage format.

CTAS has these restrictions:

  • The target table cannot be a partitioned table.
  • The target table cannot be an external table.
  • The target table cannot be a list bucketing table.
Example:
CREATE TABLE new_key_value_store
   ROW FORMAT SERDE "org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.columnar.ColumnarSerDe"
   STORED AS RCFile
   AS
SELECT (key % 1024) new_key, concat(key, value) key_value_pair
FROM key_value_store
SORT BY new_key, key_value_pair;

The above CTAS statement creates the target table new_key_value_store with the schema (new_key DOUBLE, key_value_pair STRING) derived from the results of the SELECT statement. If the SELECT statement does not specify column aliases, the column names will be automatically assigned to _col0, _col1, and _col2 etc. In addition, the new target table is created using a specific SerDe and a storage format independent of the source tables in the SELECT statement.

Starting with Hive 0.13.0, the SELECT statement can include one or more common table expressions (CTEs), as shown in the SELECT syntax. For an example, see Common Table Expression.

Being able to select data from one table to another is one of the most powerful features of Hive. Hive handles the conversion of the data from the source format to the destination format as the query is being executed.

Create Table Like

The LIKE form of CREATE TABLE allows you to copy an existing table definition exactly (without copying its data). In contrast to CTAS, the statement below creates a new empty_key_value_store table whose definition exactly matches the existing key_value_store in all particulars other than table name. The new table contains no rows.

CREATE TABLE empty_key_value_store
LIKE key_value_store;

Before Hive 0.8.0, CREATE TABLE LIKE view_name would make a copy of the view. In Hive 0.8.0 and later releases, CREATE TABLE LIKE view_name creates a table by adopting the schema of view_name (fields and partition columns) using defaults for SerDe and file formats.

Bucketed Sorted Tables

Example:
CREATE TABLE page_view(viewTime INT, userid BIGINT,
     page_url STRING, referrer_url STRING,
     ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User')
 COMMENT 'This is the page view table'
 PARTITIONED BY(dt STRING, country STRING)
 CLUSTERED BY(userid) SORTED BY(viewTime) INTO 32 BUCKETS
 ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
   FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\001'
   COLLECTION ITEMS TERMINATED BY '\002'
   MAP KEYS TERMINATED BY '\003'
 STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE;

In the example above, the page_view table is bucketed (clustered by) userid and within each bucket the data is sorted in increasing order of viewTime. Such an organization allows the user to do efficient sampling on the clustered column – in this case userid. The sorting property allows internal operators to take advantage of the better-known data structure while evaluating queries, also increasing efficiency. MAP KEYS and COLLECTION ITEMS keywords can be used if any of the columns are lists or maps.

The CLUSTERED BY and SORTED BY creation commands do not affect how data is inserted into a table – only how it is read. This means that users must be careful to insert data correctly by specifying the number of reducers to be equal to the number of buckets, and using CLUSTER BY and SORT BY commands in their query.

There is also an example of creating and populating bucketed tables.

Skewed Tables

Version information

As of Hive 0.10.0 (HIVE-3072 and HIVE-3649). See HIVE-3026 for additional JIRA tickets that implemented list bucketing in Hive 0.10.0 and 0.11.0.

Design documents

Read the Skewed Join Optimization and List Bucketing design documents for more information.

This feature can be used to improve performance for tables where one or more columns have skewed values. By specifying the values that appear very often (heavy skew) Hive will split those out into separate files (or directories in case of list bucketing) automatically and take this fact into account during queries so that it can skip or include the whole file (or directory in case of list bucketing) if possible.

This can be specified on a per-table level during table creation.

The following example shows one column with three skewed values, optionally with the STORED AS DIRECTORIES clause which specifies list bucketing.

Example:
CREATE TABLE list_bucket_single (key STRING, value STRING)
  SKEWED BY (key) ON (1,5,6) [STORED AS DIRECTORIES];

And here is an example of a table with two skewed columns.

Example:
CREATE TABLE list_bucket_multiple (col1 STRING, col2 int, col3 STRING)
  SKEWED BY (col1, col2) ON (('s1',1), ('s3',3), ('s13',13), ('s78',78)) [STORED AS DIRECTORIES];

For corresponding ALTER TABLE statements, see Alter Table Skewed or Stored as Directories below.

Temporary Tables

Version information

As of Hive 0.14.0 (HIVE-7090).

A table that has been created as a temporary table will only be visible to the current session. Data will be stored in the user’s scratch directory, and deleted at the end of the session.

If a temporary table is created with a database/table name of a permanent table which already exists in the database, then within that session any references to that table will resolve to the temporary table, rather than to the permanent table. The user will not be able to access the original table within that session without either dropping the temporary table, or renaming it to a non-conflicting name.

Temporary tables have the following limitations:

  • Partition columns are not supported.
  • No support for creation of indexes.

Starting in Hive 1.1.0 the storage policy for temporary tables can be set to memoryssd, or default with the hive.exec.temporary.table.storage configuration parameter (see HDFS Storage Types and Storage Policies).

Drop Table

DROP TABLE [IF EXISTS] table_name [PURGE];     -- (Note: PURGE available in Hive 0.14.0 and later)

DROP TABLE removes metadata and data for this table. The data is actually moved to the .Trash/Current directory if Trash is configured (and PURGE is not specified). The metadata is completely lost.

When dropping an EXTERNAL table, data in the table will NOT be deleted from the file system.

When dropping a table referenced by views, no warning is given (the views are left dangling as invalid and must be dropped or recreated by the user).

Otherwise, the table information is removed from the metastore and the raw data is removed as if by ‘hadoop dfs -rm’. In many cases, this results in the table data being moved into the user’s .Trash folder in their home directory; users who mistakenly DROP TABLEs may thus be able to recover their lost data by recreating a table with the same schema, recreating any necessary partitions, and then moving the data back into place manually using Hadoop. This solution is subject to change over time or across installations as it relies on the underlying implementation; users are strongly encouraged not to drop tables capriciously.

Version information: PURGE

The PURGE option is added in version 0.14.0 by HIVE-7100.

If PURGE is specified, the table data does not go to the .Trash/Current directory and so cannot be retrieved in the event of a mistaken DROP. The purge option can also be specified with the table property auto.purge (see Create Table above).

In Hive 0.7.0 or later, DROP returns an error if the table doesn’t exist, unless IF EXISTS is specified or the configuration variable hive.exec.drop.ignorenonexistent is set to true.

See the Alter Partition section below for how to drop partitions.

Truncate Table

Version information

As of Hive 0.11.0 (HIVE-446).

TRUNCATE TABLE table_name [PARTITION partition_spec];
partition_spec:
  : (partition_column = partition_col_value, partition_column = partition_col_value, ...)

Removes all rows from a table or partition(s). The rows will be trashed if the filesystem Trash is enabled, otherwise they are deleted (as of Hive 2.2.0 with HIVE-14626). Currently the target table should be native/managed table or an exception will be thrown. User can specify partial partition_spec for truncating multiple partitions at once and omitting partition_spec will truncate all partitions in the table.

Alter table statements enable you to change the structure of an existing table. You can add columns/partitions, change SerDe, add table and SerDe properties, or rename the table itself. Similarly, alter table partition statements allow you change the properties of a specific partition in the named table.

Alter Table

Rename Table

ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME TO new_table_name;

This statement lets you change the name of a table to a different name.

As of version 0.6, a rename on a managed table moves its HDFS location. Rename has been changed as of version 2.2.0 (HIVE-14909) so that a managed table’s HDFS location is moved only if the table is created without a LOCATION clause and under its database directory. Hive versions prior to 0.6 just renamed the table in the metastore without moving the HDFS location.

Alter Table Properties

ALTER TABLE table_name SET TBLPROPERTIES table_properties;
table_properties:
  : (property_name = property_value, property_name = property_value, ... )

You can use this statement to add your own metadata to the tables. Currently last_modified_user, last_modified_time properties are automatically added and managed by Hive. Users can add their own properties to this list. You can do DESCRIBE EXTENDED TABLE to get this information.

Alter Table Comment

To change the comment of a table you have to change the comment property of the TBLPROPERTIES:

ALTER TABLE table_name SET TBLPROPERTIES ('comment' = new_comment);

Add SerDe Properties

ALTER TABLE table_name [PARTITION partition_spec] SET SERDE serde_class_name [WITH SERDEPROPERTIES serde_properties];
ALTER TABLE table_name [PARTITION partition_spec] SET SERDEPROPERTIES serde_properties;
serde_properties:
  : (property_name = property_value, property_name = property_value, ... )

These statements enable you to change a table’s SerDe or add user-defined metadata to the table’s SerDe object.

The SerDe properties are passed to the table’s SerDe when it is being initialized by Hive to serialize and deserialize data. So users can store any information required for their custom SerDe here. Refer to the SerDe documentation and Hive SerDe in the Developer Guide for more information, and see Row Format, Storage Format, and SerDe above for details about setting a table’s SerDe and SERDEPROPERTIES in a CREATE TABLE statement.

Note that both property_name and property_value must be quoted.

Example:
ALTER TABLE table_name SET SERDEPROPERTIES ('field.delim' = ',');

Alter Table Storage Properties

ALTER TABLE table_name CLUSTERED BY (col_name, col_name, ...) [SORTED BY (col_name, ...)]
  INTO num_buckets BUCKETS;

These statements change the table’s physical storage properties.

NOTE: These commands will only modify Hive’s metadata, and will NOT reorganize or reformat existing data. Users should make sure the actual data layout conforms with the metadata definition.

Alter Table Skewed or Stored as Directories

Version information

As of Hive 0.10.0 (HIVE-3072 and HIVE-3649). See HIVE-3026 for additional JIRA tickets that implemented list bucketing in Hive 0.10.0 and 0.11.0.

A table’s SKEWED and STORED AS DIRECTORIES options can be changed with ALTER TABLE statements. See Skewed Tables above for the corresponding CREATE TABLE syntax.

Alter Table Skewed
ALTER TABLE table_name SKEWED BY (col_name1, col_name2, ...)
  ON ([(col_name1_value, col_name2_value, ...) [, (col_name1_value, col_name2_value), ...]
  [STORED AS DIRECTORIES];

The STORED AS DIRECTORIES option determines whether a skewed table uses the list bucketing feature, which creates subdirectories for skewed values.

Alter Table Not Skewed
ALTER TABLE table_name NOT SKEWED;

The NOT SKEWED option makes the table non-skewed and turns off the list bucketing feature (since a list-bucketing table is always skewed). This affects partitions created after the ALTER statement, but has no effect on partitions created before the ALTER statement.

Alter Table Not Stored as Directories
ALTER TABLE table_name NOT STORED AS DIRECTORIES;

This turns off the list bucketing feature, although the table remains skewed.

Alter Table Set Skewed Location
ALTER TABLE table_name SET SKEWED LOCATION (col_name1="location1" [, col_name2="location2", ...] );

This changes the location map for list bucketing.

Additional Alter Table Statements

See Alter Either Table or Partition below for more DDL statements that alter tables.

Alter Partition

Partitions can be added, renamed, exchanged (moved), dropped, or (un)archived by using the PARTITION clause in an ALTER TABLE statement, as described below. To make the metastore aware of partitions that were added directly to HDFS, you can use the metastore check command (MSCK) or on Amazon EMR you can use the RECOVER PARTITIONS option of ALTER TABLE. See Alter Either Table or Partition below for more ways to alter partitions.

Version 1.2+

As of Hive 1.2 (HIVE-10307), the partition values specified in partition specification are type checked, converted, and normalized to conform to their column types if the property hive.typecheck.on.insert is set to true (default). The values can be number literals.

Add Partitions

ALTER TABLE table_name ADD [IF NOT EXISTS] PARTITION partition_spec 
  [LOCATION 'location1'] partition_spec [LOCATION 'location2'] ...;
partition_spec:
  : (partition_column = partition_col_value, partition_column = partition_col_value, ...)

You can use ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION to add partitions to a table. Partition values should be quoted only if they are strings. The location must be a directory inside of which data files reside. (ADD PARTITION changes the table metadata, but does not load data. If the data does not exist in the partition’s location, queries will not return any results.) An error is thrown if the partition_spec for the table already exists. You can use IF NOT EXISTS to skip the error.

Version 0.7

Although it is proper syntax to have multiple partition_spec in a single ALTER TABLE, if you do this in version 0.7 your partitioning scheme will fail. That is, every query specifying a partition will always use only the first partition.

Specifically, the following example will FAIL silently and without error in Hive 0.7, and all queries will go only to dt=’2008-08-08′ partition, no matter which partition you specify.

Example:
ALTER TABLE page_view ADD PARTITION (dt='2008-08-08', country='us') location '/path/to/us/part080808'
                          PARTITION (dt='2008-08-09', country='us') location '/path/to/us/part080809';

In Hive 0.8 and later, you can add multiple partitions in a single ALTER TABLE statement as shown in the previous example.

In Hive 0.7, if you want to add many partitions you should use the following form:

ALTER TABLE table_name ADD PARTITION (partCol = 'value1') location 'loc1';
ALTER TABLE table_name ADD PARTITION (partCol = 'value2') location 'loc2';
...
ALTER TABLE table_name ADD PARTITION (partCol = 'valueN') location 'locN';
Dynamic Partitions

Partitions can be added to a table dynamically, using a Hive INSERT statement (or a Pig STORE statement). See these documents for details and examples:

Rename Partition

Version information

As of Hive 0.9.

ALTER TABLE table_name PARTITION partition_spec RENAME TO PARTITION partition_spec;

This statement lets you change the value of a partition column. One of use cases is that you can use this statement to normalize your legacy partition column value to conform to its type. In this case, the type conversion and normalization are not enabled for the column values in old partition_spec even with property hive.typecheck.on.insert set to true (default) which allows you to specify any legacy data in form of string in the old partition_spec.

Exchange Partition

Partitions can be exchanged (moved) between tables.

Version information

As of Hive 0.12 (HIVE-4095). Multiple partitions supported in Hive versions 1.2.2, 1.3.0, and 2.0.0+.

-- Move partition from table_name_1 to table_name_2
ALTER TABLE table_name_2 EXCHANGE PARTITION (partition_spec) WITH TABLE table_name_1;
-- multiple partitions
ALTER TABLE table_name_2 EXCHANGE PARTITION (partition_spec, partition_spec2, ...) WITH TABLE table_name_1;

This statement lets you move the data in a partition from a table to another table that has the same schema and does not already have that partition.
For further details on this feature, see Exchange Partition and HIVE-4095.

Recover Partitions (MSCK REPAIR TABLE)

Hive stores a list of partitions for each table in its metastore. If, however, new partitions are directly added to HDFS (say by using hadoop fs -put command), the metastore (and hence Hive) will not be aware of these partitions unless the user runs ALTER TABLE table_name ADD PARTITION commands on each of the newly added partitions.

However, users can run a metastore check command with the repair table option:

MSCK REPAIR TABLE table_name;

which will add metadata about partitions to the Hive metastore for partitions for which such metadata doesn’t already exist. In other words, it will add any partitions that exist on HDFS but not in metastore to the metastore. See HIVE-874 for more details. When there is a large number of untracked partitions, there is a provision to run MSCK REPAIR TABLE batch wise to avoid OOME. By giving the configured batch size for the property hive.msck.repair.batch.size it can run in the batches internally. The default value of the property is zero, it means it will execute all the partitions at once.

The equivalent command on Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR)’s version of Hive is:

ALTER TABLE table_name RECOVER PARTITIONS;

Starting with Hive 1.3, MSCK will throw exceptions if directories with disallowed characters in partition values are found on HDFS. Use hive.msck.path.validation setting on the client to alter this behavior; “skip” will simply skip the directories. “ignore” will try to create partitions anyway (old behavior). This may or may not work.

Drop Partitions

ALTER TABLE table_name DROP [IF EXISTS] PARTITION partition_spec[, PARTITION partition_spec, ...]
  [IGNORE PROTECTION] [PURGE];            -- (Note: PURGE available in Hive 1.2.0 and later, IGNORE PROTECTION not available 2.0.0 and later)

You can use ALTER TABLE DROP PARTITION to drop a partition for a table. This removes the data and metadata for this partition. The data is actually moved to the .Trash/Current directory if Trash is configured, unless PURGE is specified, but the metadata is completely lost (see Drop Table above).

Version Information: PROTECTION

IGNORE PROTECTION is no longer available in versions 2.0.0 and later. This functionality is replaced by using one of the several security options available with Hive (see SQL Standard Based Hive Authorization). See HIVE-11145 for details.

For tables that are protected by NO_DROP CASCADE, you can use the predicate IGNORE PROTECTION to drop a specified partition or set of partitions (for example, when splitting a table between two Hadoop clusters):

ALTER TABLE table_name DROP [IF EXISTS] PARTITION partition_spec IGNORE PROTECTION;

The above command will drop that partition regardless of protection stats.

Version information: PURGE

The PURGE option is added to ALTER TABLE in version 1.2.1 by HIVE-10934.

If PURGE is specified, the partition data does not go to the .Trash/Current directory and so cannot be retrieved in the event of a mistaken DROP:

ALTER TABLE table_name DROP [IF EXISTS] PARTITION partition_spec PURGE;     -- (Note: Hive 1.2.0 and later)

The purge option can also be specified with the table property auto.purge (see Create Table above).

In Hive 0.7.0 or later, DROP returns an error if the partition doesn’t exist, unless IF EXISTS is specified or the configuration variable hive.exec.drop.ignorenonexistent is set to true.

ALTER TABLE page_view DROP PARTITION (dt='2008-08-08', country='us');

(Un)Archive Partition

ALTER TABLE table_name ARCHIVE PARTITION partition_spec;
ALTER TABLE table_name UNARCHIVE PARTITION partition_spec;

Archiving is a feature to moves a partition’s files into a Hadoop Archive (HAR). Note that only the file count will be reduced; HAR does not provide any compression. See LanguageManual Archiving for more information

Alter Either Table or Partition

Alter Table/Partition File Format

ALTER TABLE table_name [PARTITION partition_spec] SET FILEFORMAT file_format;

This statement changes the table’s (or partition’s) file format. For available file_format options, see the section above on CREATE TABLE. The operation only changes the table metadata. Any conversion of existing data must be done outside of Hive.

Alter Table/Partition Location

ALTER TABLE table_name [PARTITION partition_spec] SET LOCATION "new location";

Alter Table/Partition Touch

ALTER TABLE table_name TOUCH [PARTITION partition_spec];

TOUCH reads the metadata, and writes it back. This has the effect of causing the pre/post execute hooks to fire. An example use case is if you have a hook that logs all the tables/partitions that were modified, along with an external script that alters the files on HDFS directly. Since the script modifies files outside of hive, the modification wouldn’t be logged by the hook. The external script could call TOUCH to fire the hook and mark the said table or partition as modified.

Also, it may be useful later if we incorporate reliable last modified times. Then touch would update that time as well.

Note that TOUCH doesn’t create a table or partition if it doesn’t already exist. (See Create Table.)

Alter Table/Partition Protections

Version information

As of Hive 0.7.0 (HIVE-1413). The CASCADE clause for NO_DROP was added in HIVE 0.8.0 (HIVE-2605).

This functionality was removed in Hive 2.0.0. This functionality is replaced by using one of the several security options available with Hive (see SQL Standard Based Hive Authorization). See HIVE-11145 for details.

ALTER TABLE table_name [PARTITION partition_spec] ENABLE|DISABLE NO_DROP [CASCADE];
 
ALTER TABLE table_name [PARTITION partition_spec] ENABLE|DISABLE OFFLINE;

Protection on data can be set at either the table or partition level. Enabling NO_DROP prevents a table from being dropped. Enabling OFFLINE prevents the data in a table or partition from being queried, but the metadata can still be accessed.

If any partition in a table has NO_DROP enabled, the table cannot be dropped either. Conversely, if a table has NO_DROP enabled then partitions may be dropped, but with NO_DROP CASCADE partitions cannot be dropped either unless the drop partition command specifies IGNORE PROTECTION.

Alter Table/Partition Compact

Version information

In Hive release 0.13.0 and later when transactions are being used, the ALTER TABLE statement can request compaction of a table or partition. As of Hive release 1.3.0 and 2.1.0 when transactions are being used, the ALTER TABLE … COMPACT statement can include a TBLPROPERTIES clause that is either to change compaction MapReduce job properties or to overwrite any other Hive table properties. More details can be found here.

ALTER TABLE table_name [PARTITION (partition_key = 'partition_value' [, ...])]
  COMPACT 'compaction_type'
  [WITH OVERWRITE TBLPROPERTIES ("property"="value" [, ...])];

In general you do not need to request compactions when Hive transactions are being used, because the system will detect the need for them and initiate the compaction. However, if compaction is turned off for a table or you want to compact the table at a time the system would not choose to, ALTER TABLE can initiate the compaction. The statement will enqueue a request for compaction and return. To watch the progress of the compaction, use SHOW COMPACTIONS.

The compaction_type can be MAJOR or MINOR. See the Basic Design section in Hive Transactions for more information.

Alter Table/Partition Concatenate

Version information

In Hive release 0.8.0 RCFile added support for fast block level merging of small RCFiles using concatenate command. In Hive release 0.14.0 ORC files added support fast stripe level merging of small ORC files using concatenate command.

ALTER TABLE table_name [PARTITION (partition_key = 'partition_value' [, ...])] CONCATENATE;

If the table or partition contains many small RCFiles or ORC files, then the above command will merge them into larger files. In case of RCFile the merge happens at block level whereas for ORC files the merge happens at stripe level thereby avoiding the overhead of decompressing and decoding the data.

Alter Column

Rules for Column Names

Column names are case insensitive.

Change Column Name/Type/Position/Comment

ALTER TABLE table_name [PARTITION partition_spec] CHANGE [COLUMN] col_old_name col_new_name column_type
  [COMMENT col_comment] [FIRST|AFTER column_name] [CASCADE|RESTRICT];

This command will allow users to change a column’s name, data type, comment, or position, or an arbitrary combination of them. The PARTITION clause is available in Hive 0.14.0 and later; see Upgrading Pre-Hive 0.13.0 Decimal Columns for usage. A patch for Hive 0.13 is also available (see HIVE-7971).

The CASCADE|RESTRICT clause is available in Hive 0.15.0. ALTER TABLE CHANGE COLUMN with CASCADE command changes the columns of a table’s metadata, and cascades the same change to all the partition metadata. RESTRICT is the default, limiting column change only to table metadata.

ALTER TABLE CHANGE COLUMN CASCADE clause will override the table partition’s column metadata regardless of the table or partition’s protection mode. Use with discretion.

The column change command will only modify Hive’s metadata, and will not modify data. Users should make sure the actual data layout of the table/partition conforms with the metadata definition.

Example:
CREATE TABLE test_change (a int, b int, c int);
// First change column a's name to a1.
ALTER TABLE test_change CHANGE a a1 INT;
// Next change column a1's name to a2, its data type to string, and put it after column b.
ALTER TABLE test_change CHANGE a1 a2 STRING AFTER b;
// The new table's structure is:  b int, a2 string, c int.
 
// Then change column c's name to c1, and put it as the first column.
ALTER TABLE test_change CHANGE c c1 INT FIRST;
// The new table's structure is:  c1 int, b int, a2 string.
 
// Add a comment to column a1
ALTER TABLE test_change CHANGE a1 a1 INT COMMENT 'this is column a1';

 

Add/Replace Columns

ALTER TABLE table_name 
  [PARTITION partition_spec]                 -- (Note: Hive 0.14.0 and later)
  ADD|REPLACE COLUMNS (col_name data_type [COMMENT col_comment], ...)
  [CASCADE|RESTRICT]                         -- (Note: Hive 0.15.0 and later)

ADD COLUMNS lets you add new columns to the end of the existing columns but before the partition columns. This is supported for Avro backed tables as well, for Hive 0.14 and later.

REPLACE COLUMNS removes all existing columns and adds the new set of columns. This can be done only for tables with a native SerDe (DynamicSerDe, MetadataTypedColumnsetSerDe, LazySimpleSerDe and ColumnarSerDe). Refer to Hive SerDe for more information. REPLACE COLUMNS can also be used to drop columns. For example, “ALTER TABLE test_change REPLACE COLUMNS (a int, b int);” will remove column ‘c’ from test_change’s schema.

The PARTITION clause is available in Hive 0.14.0 and later; see Upgrading Pre-Hive 0.13.0 Decimal Columns for usage.

The CASCADE|RESTRICT clause is available in Hive 0.15.0. ALTER TABLE ADD|REPLACE COLUMNS with CASCADE command changes the columns of a table’s metadata, and cascades the same change to all the partition metadata. RESTRICT is the default, limiting column changes only to table metadata.

ALTER TABLE ADD or REPLACE COLUMNS CASCADE will override the table partition’s column metadata regardless of the table or partition’s protection mode. Use with discretion.

The column change command will only modify Hive’s metadata, and will not modify data. Users should make sure the actual data layout of the table/partition conforms with the metadata definition.

Partial Partition Specification

As of Hive 0.14 (HIVE-8411), users are able to provide a partial partition spec for certain above alter column statements, similar to dynamic partitioning. So rather than having to issue an alter column statement for each partition that needs to be changed:

ALTER TABLE foo PARTITION (ds='2008-04-08', hr=11) CHANGE COLUMN dec_column_name dec_column_name DECIMAL(38,18);
ALTER TABLE foo PARTITION (ds='2008-04-08', hr=12) CHANGE COLUMN dec_column_name dec_column_name DECIMAL(38,18);
...

… you can change many existing partitions at once using a single ALTER statement with a partial partition specification:

// hive.exec.dynamic.partition needs to be set to true to enable dynamic partitioning with ALTER PARTITION
SET hive.exec.dynamic.partition = true;
 
// This will alter all existing partitions in the table with ds='2008-04-08' -- be sure you know what you are doing!
ALTER TABLE foo PARTITION (ds='2008-04-08', hr) CHANGE COLUMN dec_column_name dec_column_name DECIMAL(38,18);
// This will alter all existing partitions in the table -- be sure you know what you are doing!
ALTER TABLE foo PARTITION (ds, hr) CHANGE COLUMN dec_column_name dec_column_name DECIMAL(38,18);

 

Similar to dynamic partitioning, hive.exec.dynamic.partition must be set to true to enable use of partial partition specs during ALTER PARTITION. This is supported for the following operations:

  • Change column
  • Add column
  • Replace column
  • File Format
  • Serde Properties

Create View

CREATE VIEW [IF NOT EXISTS] [db_name.]view_name [(column_name [COMMENT column_comment], ...) ]
  [COMMENT view_comment]
  [TBLPROPERTIES (property_name = property_value, ...)]
  AS SELECT ...;

CREATE VIEW creates a view with the given name. An error is thrown if a table or view with the same name already exists. You can use IF NOT EXISTS to skip the error.

If no column names are supplied, the names of the view’s columns will be derived automatically from the defining SELECT expression. (If the SELECT contains unaliased scalar expressions such as x+y, the resulting view column names will be generated in the form _C0, _C1, etc.) When renaming columns, column comments can also optionally be supplied. (Comments are not automatically inherited from underlying columns.)

A CREATE VIEW statement will fail if the view’s defining SELECT expression is invalid.

Note that a view is a purely logical object with no associated storage. (No support for materialized views is currently available in Hive.) When a query references a view, the view’s definition is evaluated in order to produce a set of rows for further processing by the query. (This is a conceptual description; in fact, as part of query optimization, Hive may combine the view’s definition with the query’s, e.g. pushing filters from the query down into the view.)

A view’s schema is frozen at the time the view is created; subsequent changes to underlying tables (e.g. adding a column) will not be reflected in the view’s schema. If an underlying table is dropped or changed in an incompatible fashion, subsequent attempts to query the invalid view will fail.

Views are read-only and may not be used as the target of LOAD/INSERT/ALTER. For changing metadata, see ALTER VIEW.

A view may contain ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses. If a referencing query also contains these clauses, the query-level clauses are evaluated after the view clauses (and after any other operations in the query). For example, if a view specifies LIMIT 5, and a referencing query is executed as (select * from v LIMIT 10), then at most 5 rows will be returned.

Starting with Hive 0.13.0, the view’s select statement can include one or more common table expressions (CTEs) as shown in the SELECT syntax. For examples of CTEs in CREATE VIEW statements, see Common Table Expression.

Example:
CREATE VIEW onion_referrers(url COMMENT 'URL of Referring page')
  COMMENT 'Referrers to The Onion website'
  AS
  SELECT DISTINCT referrer_url
  FROM page_view
  WHERE page_url='http://www.theonion.com';

Use SHOW CREATE TABLE to display the CREATE VIEW statement that created a view. As of Hive 2.2.0, SHOW VIEWS displays a list of views in a database.

Version Information

Originally, the file format for views was hard coded as SequenceFile. Hive 2.1.0 (HIVE-13736) made views follow the same defaults as tables and indexes using the hive.default.fileformat and hive.default.fileformat.managed properties.

Drop View

DROP VIEW [IF EXISTS] [db_name.]view_name;

DROP VIEW removes metadata for the specified view. (It is illegal to use DROP TABLE on a view.)

When dropping a view referenced by other views, no warning is given (the dependent views are left dangling as invalid and must be dropped or recreated by the user).

In Hive 0.7.0 or later, DROP returns an error if the view doesn’t exist, unless IF EXISTS is specified or the configuration variable hive.exec.drop.ignorenonexistent is set to true.

Example:
DROP VIEW onion_referrers;

Alter View Properties

ALTER VIEW [db_name.]view_name SET TBLPROPERTIES table_properties;
table_properties:
  : (property_name = property_value, property_name = property_value, ...)

As with ALTER TABLE, you can use this statement to add your own metadata to a view.

Alter View As Select

Version information

As of Hive 0.11.

ALTER VIEW [db_name.]view_name AS select_statement;

Alter View As Select changes the definition of a view, which must exist. The syntax is similar to that for CREATE VIEW and the effect is the same as for CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW.

Note: The view must already exist, and if the view has partitions, it could not be replaced by Alter View As Select.

Create/Drop/Alter Index

Version information

As of Hive 0.7.

This section provides a brief introduction to Hive indexes, which are documented more fully here:

In Hive 0.12.0 and earlier releases, the index name is case-sensitive for CREATE INDEX and DROP INDEX statements. However, ALTER INDEX requires an index name that was created with lowercase letters (see HIVE-2752). This bug is fixed in Hive 0.13.0 by making index names case-insensitive for all HiveQL statements. For releases prior to 0.13.0, the best practice is to use lowercase letters for all index names.

Create Index

CREATE INDEX index_name
  ON TABLE base_table_name (col_name, ...)
  AS index_type
  [WITH DEFERRED REBUILD]
  [IDXPROPERTIES (property_name=property_value, ...)]
  [IN TABLE index_table_name]
  [
     [ ROW FORMAT ...] STORED AS ...
     | STORED BY ...
  ]
  [LOCATION hdfs_path]
  [TBLPROPERTIES (...)]
  [COMMENT "index comment"];

CREATE INDEX creates an index on a table using the given list of columns as keys. See CREATE INDEX in the Indexes design document.

Drop Index

DROP INDEX [IF EXISTS] index_name ON table_name;

DROP INDEX drops the index, as well as deleting the index table.

In Hive 0.7.0 or later, DROP returns an error if the index doesn’t exist, unless IF EXISTS is specified or the configuration variable hive.exec.drop.ignorenonexistent is set to true.

Alter Index

ALTER INDEX index_name ON table_name [PARTITION partition_spec] REBUILD;

ALTER INDEX … REBUILD builds an index that was created using the WITH DEFERRED REBUILD clause, or rebuilds a previously built index. If PARTITION is specified, only that partition is rebuilt.

Create Temporary Macro

CREATE TEMPORARY MACRO macro_name([col_name col_type, ...]) expression;

CREATE TEMPORARY MACRO creates a macro using the given optional list of columns as inputs to the expression. Macros exist for the duration of the current session.

Examples:
CREATE TEMPORARY MACRO fixed_number() 42;
CREATE TEMPORARY MACRO string_len_plus_two(x string) length(x) + 2;
CREATE TEMPORARY MACRO simple_add (x int, y int) x + y;

Drop Temporary Macro

DROP TEMPORARY MACRO [IF EXISTS] macro_name;

DROP TEMPORARY MACRO returns an error if the function doesn’t exist, unless IF EXISTS is specified.

Create/Drop/Reload Function

Temporary Functions

Create Temporary Function

CREATE TEMPORARY FUNCTION function_name AS class_name;

This statement lets you create a function that is implemented by the class_name. You can use this function in Hive queries as long as the session lasts. You can use any class that is in the class path of Hive. You can add jars to class path by executing ‘ADD JAR’ statements. Please refer to the CLI section Hive Interactive Shell Commands, including Hive Resources, for more information on how to add/delete files from the Hive classpath. Using this, you can register User Defined Functions (UDF’s).

Also see Hive Plugins for general information about creating custom UDFs.

Drop Temporary Function

You can unregister a UDF as follows:

DROP TEMPORARY FUNCTION [IF EXISTS] function_name;

In Hive 0.7.0 or later, DROP returns an error if the function doesn’t exist, unless IF EXISTS is specified or the configuration variable hive.exec.drop.ignorenonexistent is set to true.

Permanent Functions

In Hive 0.13 or later, functions can be registered to the metastore, so they can be referenced in a query without having to create a temporary function each session.

Create Function

CREATE FUNCTION [db_name.]function_name AS class_name
  [USING JAR|FILE|ARCHIVE 'file_uri' [, JAR|FILE|ARCHIVE 'file_uri'] ];

This statement lets you create a function that is implemented by the class_name. Jars, files, or archives which need to be added to the environment can be specified with the USING clause; when the function is referenced for the first time by a Hive session, these resources will be added to the environment as if ADD JAR/FILE had been issued. If Hive is not in local mode, then the resource location must be a non-local URI such as an HDFS location.

The function will be added to the database specified, or to the current database at the time that the function was created. The function can be referenced by fully qualifying the function name (db_name.function_name), or can be referenced without qualification if the function is in the current database.

Drop Function

Version information

As of Hive 0.13.0 (HIVE-6047).

DROP FUNCTION [IF EXISTS] function_name;

DROP returns an error if the function doesn’t exist, unless IF EXISTS is specified or the configuration variable hive.exec.drop.ignorenonexistent is set to true.

Reload Function

Version information

As of Hive 1.2.0 (HIVE-2573).

RELOAD FUNCTION;

As of HIVE-2573, creating permanent functions in one Hive CLI session may not be reflected in HiveServer2 or other Hive CLI sessions, if they were started before the function was created. Issuing RELOAD FUNCTION within a HiveServer2 or HiveCLI session will allow it to pick up any changes to the permanent functions that may have been done by a different HiveCLI session.

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